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英語学習:BBC Learning Englishを活用しよう! 語彙力アップ! Suffix(接尾辞)について [語彙:6 Minutes Vocabulary]

f:id:konpekikai:20180824135428p:plain

今回はBBC Learning Englishの Lower-intermediate コースから、Suffix(接尾辞)に関するトピックを紹介します。

■関連ページ


こちらは Lower-intermediateコースのUnit 1の内容です。

Unit1のSession1では、6 Minutes Vocabularyの概要と、Suffixes(接尾辞群)について学びます。

 

Suffix(接尾辞)

‐er,‐less,‐able など単語の後ろにつくものをSuffix(接尾辞)といいます。

接尾語にはパターンがあります。たとえば、形容詞の最後に "ly" が加わると副詞になる、というのも接尾語の一つのパターンです。

以下、Suffix(接尾辞)のパターンを一部を表にまとめてみました。

接尾辞 意味
-able 〜できる available(利用可能な)、capable(有能な)
-arium (orium) 〜のための場所 aquarium(水族館)、auditorium(講堂)
-cide 殺すこと homicide(殺人)、suicide(自殺)
-ee 受け取る人 nominee(候補者)、employee(従業員)
-eer 〜に従事する人 engineer(エンジニア)、volunteer(ボランティア)
-emia 血液関係 anemia(貧血)、leukemia(白血病
-en 〜でできた wooden(木製の)、golden(金製の)
-log 話すこと dialogue(会話)、monolog(独白)
-ology ~学 meteorology(気象学)、psychology(心理学)
-pathy 気持ち sympathy(同情), apathy(無気力)
-phobia 恐怖症 acrophobia(高所恐怖症)、claustrophobia(閉所恐怖症)
-scribe/script 書く transcript(記録)、describe(描写する)
-sphere 地球 atmosphere(大気)、hemisphere(半球)
-ward 方向 backward(後方に)、eastward(東方へ)
-ware 同一種類の品 hardware(金属製品)、kitchenware(台所用品)
-wise 向き clockwise(時計回りの)、lengthwise(縦に)

(引用元:DMM英会話Blog

 

さて、BBC Learning English に戻りますが、今回はSuffix(接尾辞)

-ee / -able / -ible / -ness

についての解説です。
英語で書かれている解説にも慣れて行きましょう。

Session Vocabulary
Suffixes
-ee:
creates a noun meaning 'person who receives an action'

-able:
creates an adjective meaning that the subject can do something OR that something can be done to it

-ible:
a different spelling of -able

-ness:
creates a noun which describes a quality of state

◎文法用語解説 
noun ... 名詞
adjective ... 形容詞
subject ... 主語

 

では、実際に「6 Minutes Vocabulary」を聞いてみましょう

■オーディオ教材

6 Minutes Vocabulary : Suffixes

 

どうですか? 聴き取れましたか?

今回の「6 Minutes Vocabulary」はFinnとAliceがSuffix(接尾辞)について話しています。

ダイアログには
excitableresponsible, interviewee, nervousness, politeness
といった語彙のSuffix(接尾辞)を解説しています。

 

以下、ダイアログのスクリプトです。

In this episode, Finn and Alice look at a very important part of word building – suffixes.

Finn
Hello and welcome to 6 Minute Vocabulary. I’m Finn...

Alice
And I’m Alice. Today we’re looking at a very important part of word building – suffixes.

Finn
Suffixes. We’ll look at what they are, what they mean and how to use them.

Alice
There’ll be a quiz…

Finn
And we’ll leave you with a top tip for learning vocabulary.

Alice
So: to start off, we’re going to listen to Andrea and Steve who work in a bank. They have just interviewed two people who want to work there.

Finn
And here’s a question to think about while you listen: who did Andrea and Steve like best - the first person or the second person?

Alice
Who did they like best? Let’s find out. 

INSERT

Andrea
What do you think then Steve?

Steve
Well, the first one was very excitable: he kept laughing and speaking fast.

Andrea
Perhaps it was just nervousness, but there’s no room for that in this business.

Steve
No. Now I thought the second interviewee seemed a bit more responsible.

Andrea
Yes, she did – very important when dealing with money. And she was polite.

Steve
Politeness is essential in this job.

Andrea
Absolutely. Well, I think we both know which one is more employable. 

Finn
So, that’s Steve and Andrea. And we asked you: who did they like best?

Alice
And the answer is: they definitely liked the second person best. The second one was polite and responsible. The first one was a bit too excitable.

Finn
That’s right, and excitable is a key word in the show today because it ends in a suffix.

Alice
Now in the world of vocabulary, a suffix is a group of letters that you can add to the end of a word to change its form, or meaning, or both.  

Finn
For example, the word excitable has the suffix -able, spelt a-b-l-e. -able makes verbs into adjectives, and we use –able words to say that a subject can do something – is able to do something - or they behave in a particular way.

Alice
So if we take the verb excite, add the suffix -able, we can say that the first interviewee was excitable, meaning: he can get very excited.

Finn
And the second one was responsible, that’s responsible with –ible, spelt ‘i-b-l-e’. She can be trusted to do the right thing. And that’s why she was more employable, now that's -able with an a again.

Now for another suffix. Andrea and Steve talked about two interviewees. The suffix –ee, spelt e-e, makes a noun which means ‘the person who receives an action’.

Alice
For example, if you add –ee to interview, you get the person who receives an interview, an interviewee.

IDENT
You’re listening to BBC Learning English dot com.

Finn
And we’re talking about suffixes. Our final suffix for today is –ness, spelt n-e-s-s.Adding –ness to an adjective makes a noun.

Alice
That’s right, and interviewee number one suffered from nervousness – the noun form of nervous.

Finn
But number two understood the importance of politeness – the noun form of polite. Is politeness important to you Alice?

Alice
Oh yes Finn, politeness is very important to me.

Finn
I think you’re very polite. Now let’s listen to today’s suffixes and words again.

Alice
The first one was: -able with an a. a-b-l-e.

Finn
excitable, employable

Alice
-ible withan i. i-b-l-e.

Finn
responsible

Alice
-ee: e-e

Finn
interviewee

Alice
-ness: n-e-s-s

Finn
nervousness, politeness

Alice
And it’s time for a quiz. Choose the correct suffix to complete the final words in these 2 sentences. Ready?

Number 1.The most important thing to me is my family’s… a) happy-ee b) happy-able, c) happiness.

Finn
This one is the noun form of happy, so it’s c) happiness.

Alice
Number 2. I’m learning how to do this job. I’m a a) trainee b) trainable, c) train-ness.

Finn
You are receiving training, so you’re a trainee.

Alice
Well done if you got those right.

Finn
And that brings us almost to the end of today’s programme.

Alice
But before we go, here’s today’s top tip for learning vocabulary: if you use an online dictionary, type a hyphen or a dash into the search box, and then type in any of today’s suffixes. The dictionary will give you a list of words that end with your suffix.

Finn
You know, that’s a really good tip: I think I might try that. There’s more about this at BBC learning English dot com. Join us again for more 6 Minute Vocabulary.

Both
Goodbye!

このようにたった6分の番組ですが、かなり内容は濃いですね。

はじめて英語で英語を学んだ方には、少しハードルが高く感じたかもしれません。
しかし、日本語で学ぶのとは段違いに触れる英語の量も多くなるので、英語習得という点では大変メリットがあるのですね。

英文法を英語で学ぶ参考書

BBC Learning Englishは膨大な数の学習コースをこなしていくので、やり遂げればかなりの英語力アップが期待できます。

しかし、もっと文法を体系だってしっかり学びたい方は、『English Grammar in Use』という参考書がオススメです。
こちらは、問題集も兼ねているので理解度をしっかり確認できます。

English Grammar in Use Book with Answers: A Self-Study Reference and Practice Book for Intermediate Learners of English

English Grammar in Use Book with Answers: A Self-Study Reference and Practice Book for Intermediate Learners of English

 

 『English Grammar in Use』はアプリ版もあります。
アプリ版には例題の音声が入っていますし、理解度確認クイズはよりインタラクティブなものになっています。

English Grammar in Use – Full

English Grammar in Use – Full

  • Cambridge University Press
  • 教育
  • ¥2,000

 

『English Grammar in Use』については、こちらの記事でも詳しく解説していますので参考にして下さい。

 

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